The Federal Circuit has consistently made clear that arguments not first made to the PTAB will not be considered on appeal. Google fell victim to this well-worn concept in Google Inc. v. SimpleAir, Inc., 2016-1901 (CAFC March 28, 2017), wherein the Federal Circuit decided, in a non-precedential opinion, that Google waived a claim construction argument that was not first presented to the Board. The Court also denied Google’s backup argument that, even under the Board’s claim construction, the art rendered the challenged claims unpatentable.
Regarding the waiver issue, the Court gave context to the dispute by noting that the term at issue, “central broadcast server,” had been construed in three prior district court litigations. In each instance, the courts adopted a definition of the term that was identical to the construction ultimately applied by the PTAB. Although Google filed its IPR against the backdrop of those district court constructions, Google provided the Board with the district court definitions of the term, without offering any other suggested construction. Id. at 5-6 (“Google did not…insist or even request that the PTAB apply a differing construction.”). Google further conceded, at oral argument, that the district court constructions constituted the broadest reasonable interpretation in the IPR proceeding. As such, the claim construction argument Google attempted on appeal was deemed waived.
Regarding Google’s backup plan, the Court quickly dispatched with Google’s arguments, describing them as a “mischaracterization of the PTAB’s ruling, in attempt to create legal error.” Id. at 10.
In sum, this decision reminds Petitioners of the need to carefully weigh the entire record and choose their claim construction positions wisely. While it is hard to know all the litigation considerations that were present in this case, the BRI standard could have been a helpful distinction from the insufficient district court constructions to defeat the challenged claims.